A brief history of Fascism
Fascism first emerged in the 1920’s, rallying and spreading like wildfire until the combined forces of Liberalism and Communism defeated it in 1945. Italy could probably be described as have the most pure “Fascist state”, as a nation that placed primacy of culture over blood, whereas Nazi Germany’s racialism was a slight deviation from Mussolini’s original fascist vision. Nonetheless, once Fascism was defeated in 1945, the ideology retreated to Franco’s Spain and Salazar’s Portugal, where it would experience a slow, decrepit death. Its most successful spin-offs were perhaps Arab Ba’athism, whose last vanguard is Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and the “Third Position” of Juan Peron in Argentina and Augusto Pinochet in Chile. Once Saddam Hussein’s Ba’athist state came to an end and now that Assad has been reduced to protectorate of Russia, orthodox Fascism is all but a memory.
Or, is it? …
It’s almost impossible to define “Fascism” because its so politically charged, with its opponents still eager to bury it and its proponents eager to present it with new labels to dodge the Liberal and Communist propaganda against it. Essentially, if a political movement is rooted in a romantic and even spiritual vision of a nation’s identity being revived, then it’s Fascist. If it rejects the economic and ideological reductionism of Communism and Capitalism in favor of a poetic rebirth of a nation by and for its people, then it’s Fascist.
Julius Evola defined the Right (i.e. Fascism) “in terms of forces and traditions that acted formatively on a group of nations” and Mussolini wrote that Fascism is a “categorical, definitive antithesis to the world of democracy, plutocracy, Freemasonry, to the world which still abides by the fundamental principles laid down in 1789.”
Fascism is the repudiation of corrupted bourgeois consumerism and naïve proletariat egalitarianism once embodied by both China and Russia. Which brings us to the modern world.
Two major events happened in 1991. The Soviet Union collapsed and with it, the longstanding mythical Eurasianist identity of the Russian people and Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping stated in September 1991 that “a new cold war” between China and the United States had begun. China and the United States were allies against the Soviet Union in the Cold War for geostrategic reasons, however once this mutual threat was removed, it was inevitable that China would turn against the United States, just as it was expected that the United States would turn against China and begin encouraging the acceleration of its “democratic transition.”
History of Russia
Russia has for centuries prided itself as the imperial conqueror of the “world island” uniting east with west in a gigantic Tzardom that claimed its legitimacy from both God and Byzantium. When the Bolsheviks took over, this legacy did not end, but merely changed. Rather than God and Byzantium granting legitimacy to Russia’s legacy as the Third Rome and guardian of Eastern Christendom, the now Soviet Union came to embody the global basecamp of international Communism against global capitalism. Though under Lenin the USSR was overtly hostile towards the ancient heritage of Russia, once Stalin gained power, he pragmatically relied on the power of nationalism and synthesized Russian Communism with Russian Nationalism. The two became inseparable, and despite Khruschav’s de-Stalinization programs, the intoxicating virus of nationalism had escaped quarantine.
After the Soviet Union’s collapse, the assumption both within and without Russia’s borders is that Russia would be integrated into the liberal Capitalist world order. Over a decade of humiliation and degradation at the hands of a revolving door of kleptocrats and oligarchs, the Russian imagination turned away from the West for answers and inspiration, and turned backwards into its past and inwards to its own unique character for answers and inspiration. America never successfully transitioned from enemy to ally with Russia, antagonizing it on every front until the Russian folk were no longer merely skeptical of Western liberalism but outright opposed to it, hearkening to not only the glory days of the Soviet empire, but the Russian empire and its Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine spiritual tradition to fill the void left by generations of atheism and degeneracy.
History of China
China’s history has paralleled Russia’s in many ways. Mao, like Lenin, was an ardent Marxist fanatic who strove mightily to manifest Marxist theory in political practice. And when he passed, pragmatic nationalists abandoned Marxism in all but name and set about shoring up and developing its steadily rising global position. Unlike Stalin though, Deng Xiaoping could not be so forceful and brutal, he had to be strategic and tactical, as well did his successors which has proven to be perfectly acceptable to the descendants of Sun Tzu.
The Bear and the Dragon united against the Eagle
So the question then is, what in the world does Fascism have to do with the modern China and Russia? The answer is once America defeated the Soviet Union and gave China a taste of global power that could bring it out of the Third World, it was somewhat inevitable that China and Russia would emerge as neo-Fascist states to preserve and expand their global power.
Unlike Western Europe, which gave into Capitalism and Socialism with relative ease, China and Russia have a history and national narrative that in no way resembled American symbols, lexicon, or ideals. Therefore discussion with Russians and Chinese about “freedom” and “liberty” and “democratization” do not carry the same meanings or historical experience that it would with a typical Westerner. This narrative has never been a part of their collective consciousness. Their world is much simpler.
Survival of the tribe at all costs has eclipsed the twentieth century’s abstractions and ideologies.
Whereas Western European civilization has had the blessing of considerable free thinking and intellectual pursuits, amongst their other glories and advancements, the peoples of Eurasia, living on the hostile steppes, dealing with everybody from Genghis Khan to fanatical jihadists, have had little time to evolve though such movements as the Enlightenment. Therefore in continuing today, when observing the United States and the West from an ancient Chinese or Russian nationalist perspective, America is an immature, petty, decadent country which thinks it has a mandate to make us all look like “main street” and be ruled by “wall street.” This is unacceptable at many levels.
As noted Sinologist Steven Mosher wrote in his book “Hegemon” on the imperialist rise of China, he notes how “the Communist leadership is consumed by the atavistic fantasies of Great Han hegemony and sees the U.S. as the chief obstacle to the restoration of China’s lost glories.” Putin’s Russia views the world in a similar light as well, that endless American expansionism–culturally, economically and militarily–demands that Russia not submit, that it regain its entitled position it once held with the Tzars and Stalin.
But inside of this international contention, is an underlying metaphysical struggle between two world views. America, having now abandoned its ancient Anglo-Saxon and Christian heritage, represents the main engine of global corporatism to convert the world to American-style capitalism and social democracy. In opposition are Russia and China, who categorically reject these late-civilization, bourgeois values, embracing loyalty to the tribe above all else. Deng Xiaoping’s desire to build an alternative global political and economic order to rival Pax Americana and Putin’s desire to aggressively assert Russian power are evidence of nations that are not willing to bow down to the New York-Washington-Brussels financial-political matrix.
In their competition with this American hegemony, we see Russian and Chinese calls for alternative global reserve currencies, calls for a multi-polar world, limits on American unilateral power, the supporting of European nationalist and dissident movements and the general unwillingness to cooperate with America’s overseas military adventures.
If Russia and China are able to either outlast America or somehow successfully and peacefully create an alternative global system to the American order, it is likely that that the last remaining ideological child of the Enlightenment will fade into history with Hitler and Marx and a new order can replace it. One hopefully based upon smaller tribal identities. A world dominated by China and/or Russia will be a world where the collective identity of consumerism will probably not reign with such great force. It will be a multi-polar world of shared and diverse identities and interests that will not be harmonized by Wall Street.
As dissident Right-Wingers we should not be getting our hopes up too much that we will start seeing donation checks from Beijing in the mail anytime soon, but it should give us both pause and hope that Russian financial interests do not mind openly supporting the Front National and Syriza, or Alexander Dugin supporting Golden Dawn. The Chinese and Russians are very serious about using asymmetrical warfare against the hegemonic power of the United States and their end goal is not to encourage Nike to relocate its headquarters to Moscow or Shanghai, but rather assert the singular dominance of the once great Han and Tzarist empires.